ANALYSIS OF LEGAL FORMS OF LAND USE UNDER THE LEGISLATION OF UKRAINE AND POLAND

Keywords: property, use, land easement, emphytesis, superficies, usufruct.

Abstract

In the article, a professional comparative legal analysis of the forms of land use under the legislation of Ukraine and Poland was carried out. For the completeness and comprehensive presentation of the research, attention is primarily focused on the legal forms of land use, the legislation that regulates the issue of registration of rights to land plots is analyzed. The article outlines the presence of a set approach to the introduction of a plot of land into circulation in Ukraine and Poland. A plot of land becomes an object of legal relations under the condition of its formation, i.e. transformation from an object – a natural resource to a separate object of space with defined boundaries and mode of use. It has been investigated that land plots in Ukraine can be under the conditions of ownership (state, communal, collective and private) and use (permanent use, lease or sublease, land easement, use of someone else's land plot for agricultural needs (emphyteusis) and use of someone else's land plot for buildings (surfaces)). The article discloses the conditions for the use of land plots in Ukraine and Poland and it is clarified that, in general, the forms of use are identical, but with certain differences, namely the presence in Ukrainian legislation of the right of permanent use as a tool for acquiring rights to land plots, as opposed to usufruct in Polish legislation. It has been established that the right of permanent use is an ineffective legal instrument for acquiring rights to land plots in Ukraine, as evidenced by numerous court practices. It is proposed, based on the results of the research, and taking into account successful foreign experience, the introduction of the usufruct institution into Ukrainian legislation as a legal structure for the use of land plots/real estate, which will allow to resolve a number of problems that arise in practice and are related to the right of permanent use, which is acquired whether it is acquired according to the provisions of Ukrainian legislation.

References

1. Dekret Kabinetu Ministriv Ukrainy (1992) “Pro pryvatyzatsiiu zemelnykh dilianok” [Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine] URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/15-92#Text [in Ukrainian].
2. Zakon Ukrainy “Pro vnesennia zmin do deiakykh zakonodavchykh aktiv Ukrainy shchodo rozmezhuvannia zemel derzhavnoi ta komunalnoi vlasnosti” (2012) [Law of Ukraine "On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of Ukraine Regarding Demarcation of State and Communal Property Lands"] URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/5245-17# [in Ukrainian].
3. Zakon Ukrainy “Pro vnesennia zmin do deiakykh zakonodavchykh aktiv Ukrainy shchodo vyrishennia pytannia kolektyvnoi vlasnosti na zemliu, udoskonalennia pravyl zemlekorystuvannia u masyvakh zemel silskohospodarskoho pryznachennia, zapobihannia reiderstvu ta stymuliuvannia zroshennia v Ukraini” (2018) [The Law of Ukraine "On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of Ukraine on Solving the Issue of Collective Land Ownership, Improving the Rules of Land Use in Massifs of Agricultural Land, Preventing Raiding and Stimulating Irrigation in Ukraine"] URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2498-19/sp:max50:nav7:font2#n121 [in Ukrainian].
4. Zakon Ukrainy “Pro vnesennia zmin do deiakykh zakonodavchykh aktiv Ukrainy shchodo umov obihu zemel silskohospodarskoho pryznachennia” (2020) [The Law of Ukraine "On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of Ukraine Regarding the Conditions of Transfer of Agricultural Land"] URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/552-20# Text [in Ukrainian]
5. Zakon Ukrainy “Pro orendu zemli” (1998) [Law of Ukraine "On Land Lease"] URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/161-14#Text [in Ukrainian].
6. Zakon z pytan upravlinnia silskohospodarskym mainom Derzhkaznacheistva (1991) [Law on the management of agricultural property of the State Treasury] URL: https://isap.sejm.gov.pl/ isap.nsf/download.xsp/WDU19911070464/U/D19910464Lj.pdf [in Poland].
7. Zemelnyi kodeks Ukrainy (1990) [Land Code of Ukraine] URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/ laws/show/561-12#Text [in Ukrainian].
8. Zemelnyi kodeks Ukrainy (2001) [Land Code of Ukraine] URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/ laws/show/2768-14#Text [in Ukrainian].
9. Kodeks tsyvilnyi (1964) [Civil Code] URL: https://isap.sejm.gov.pl/isap.nsf/download.xsp/ WDU19640160093/U/D19640093Lj.pdf [in Poland].
10. Postanova Velykoi Palaty Verkhovnoho Sudu (2020) [Resolution of the Supreme Court], case No. 179/1043/16-ts URL: https://supreme.court.gov.ua/userfiles/media/new_folder_for_ uploads/supreme/02_07_2021_Gudyma_D_A_practicum.pdf [in Ukrainian].
11. Rishennia Voievodskoho administratyvnoho sudu v Krakovi (2014) [Decision of the Voivodeship Administrative Court in Kraków], file no. No. II SA / Kr 735/14 URL: https://bip.rzeszow.uw.gov.pl/pozostale-informacje/informacje-prawne/wyrok-wojewodzkiegosadu- administracycnego-w-krakowie-z-23-lipca-2014- r-sygn-akt-ii-sakr-73514/ [in Poland].
12. Rishennia Vyshchoho administratyvnoho sudu (2013) [Decision of the Higher Administrative Court] URL: https://bip.rzeszow.uw.gov.pl/pozostale-informacje/informacje-prawne/wyroknsa- ii-fsk-209611/ [in Poland].
13. Smitiukh A.V. Shchodo uzufruktu korporatyvnykh paiv (chastok, aktsii) (2020) [Regarding the usufruct of corporate shares (shares, shares)]. Pravo i suspilstvo 3/2020, p. 74–79. DOI https://doi.org/10.32842/2078-3736/2020.3.11 [in Ukrainian].
14. Tsyvilnyi kodeks Ukrainy (2003) [Civil Code of Ukraine] URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/ laws/show/435-15#Text [in Ukrainian].
15. Ukhvala Verkhovnoho Sudu (2011) [By the decision of the Supreme Court] URL: https://bip.rzeszow.uw.gov.pl/pozostale-informacje/informacje-prawne/wyrok-sn-z- 21-09-2011r-sygn-akt-i-csk-71910/ [in Poland].

Abstract views: 20
PDF Downloads: 11
Published
2022-12-27
How to Cite
Tsvigun, I. (2022). ANALYSIS OF LEGAL FORMS OF LAND USE UNDER THE LEGISLATION OF UKRAINE AND POLAND. Scientific Journal of Polonia University, 54(5), 143-149. https://doi.org/10.23856/5419